This page is for when you're all, "hm, I want to buy non-fat milk but I have no idea which of the ten different milks it is" or "WHAT THE HECK IS THIS" page.

Restaurant Words & Phrases
Watch out for 敬語 (keigo) or the more formal, polite way of talking at restaurants and shops.
飲み放題「のみほうだい」[nomihoudai]: All you can drink :: Usually for a set time, like 90 minutes or 2 hours.
食べ放題「たべほうだい」[tabehoudai]: All you can eat :: Also usually for a set time like 90 minutes or 2 hours.
持ち帰り「もちかえり」[mochikaeri] : take out
こちらで お召し上がれでスカ?「ここでおめしあがれですか」[kokode omeshiagaredesuka] : Are you eating here?
あたためはいいですか?[atatamewa iidesuka] : Do you want this heated up? (usually said at conbinis)

Food
野菜「やさい」[yasai] vegetables
果物「くだもの」[kudamono] fruits

魚「さかな」[sakana] fish
肉「にく」[niku] meat (but generally doesn't include processed pork like ham or bacon)
牛肉「ぎゅうにく」[gyu niku] beef
豚肉「ぶたにく」[buta niku] pork
魚介/魚介類 [gyokai/gyokairui] Marine products; seafood; fish and shellfish

牛乳「ぎゅうにゅう」[gyuunyuu]: milk
nonfat milk: look for kanji with 無 (mu) in it. This kanji means "non" or "nothing"
チーズ (chiizu): cheese (most super markets have a mixed cheese that is pretty good for melting, awful for eating plain.)
ヨーグルト (yooguruto): Yogurt. Comes in both plain flavors as well as sweetened and fruit flavors.

おにぎり: rice balls
(Types) ツナマヤ: tuna-mayo (like the kind of tuna you'd find in a tunafish sandwich)

Spices, Seasonings, and Sauces
だし 「dashi」: sold either in powder form or in liquid form, Dashi is a type of fish stock that's used in many Japanese dishes like miso soup.
みりん (mirin) : typical ingredient used in Japanese cooking.
油「あぶら」(abura) : oil
酢「す」 (su) : vinegar

Recommended Foods
きびだんご Kibi Dango: One of Okayama's famous omiyage. Made from millet, a type of grain. Momotaro is said to have eaten these to grow strong and defeat the demons.
白桃 Hakutou: White Peaches
Please try some while you're here.